Ukraine is an independent state in eastern Europe that shares a border with Russia to its east.
Troglobites are creatures that have adapted to a permanent life in the darkness of a cave.
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Petrified Wood is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
Curling Stones are made from a special type of granite, found at just a few locations worldwide.
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Free Google Earth software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
Chalk is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Cinder Cones are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Modiphius Skyrim Mini Game Dwemer Spheres Spiders SW - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Copper is a metal used in coins, electronics, pipes, wiring, motors, alloys and many other products.
The Doorway to Hell is a flaming sinkhole seeping natural gas that has been burning for decades.
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Hawaii*s Next Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
Gemstones - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Rock Salt is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
Helium is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Sand is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Teacher Resources - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
The Science of Fireworks Learn how the colors and shapes are created.
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Andalusite is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
Extraterrestrial Gems - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
The Uses of Marble are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Geology Tools - Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
1971 ORIOLES CHAMPIONSHIP SERIES TEST TICKETS RARE LOT OF 2 UNTORN Off the northwest coast of Africa, 60 miles west of Morocco.
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Vintage Polo by Ralph Lauren Size L Polo Sportsman Outdoor Apparel Vest/Jacket is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
What Is Luster? Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
10 Gemmy Facts About Spinel - Is spinel the world*s most overlooked gem?
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Spatter Cones are small, steep, volcanic cones built of welded basaltic lava.
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Map of the Oceans - showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
The Green River Formation is one of the most famous rock units in the world for its fossils.
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Tallest Tsunami - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
1-1/2" 1 1/2" Roofing Nails | 26 lbs. are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?